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Political characteristic - Transnitrian Moldovan republic


Kategorie: Politologie

Typ práce: Seminárky/referáty

Škola: Ostravská univerzita v Ostravě Přírodovědecká fakulta, Ostrava 3

Charakteristika: Práce je psaná v angličtině. Věnuje se geografickému fenoménu východní Evropy - Podněsterské Moldavské republice. Popisuje základní politické a dějiné charakteristiky této země. Snaží se podat i stručná vysvětlení příčin mezinárodního postavení. Důraz je kladen na postavení Ruska a válku v 90. letech. Věnuje se aktuálně působícím politickým stranám a politickému systému v Podněstří. Závěrem shrnuje všechny dostupné poznatky a předkládá i souhrn dostupné literatury.

Obsah

1.
Fundamental characteristics
2.
Modern history
3.
Independence of Transnitria
4.
War in Transnitria
4.1.
Sides of the conflicts
4.2.
Start of the war
4.3.
Peace treaty
4.4.
Result
5.
Political status
5.1.
Moldovan position
5.2.
Foreign policy of Transnitria
5.3.
Disputed territories
6.
Politics
6.1.
Parties
7.
Result
8.
Literature

Úryvek

"Transnitrian Moldovan republic, also known in English as „Trans-Dniestr“ or „Transdniestria“ (1) is a separative and breakaway state located between the borders of Moldovan republic and Ukraine. It is a very narrow strip of land located across the river Dniestr on the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine.
Transnitrian Moldovan republic declared its independence in 1990 and officially titles itself as Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as Pridnestrovie), but some sources state that it adopted this title after the short war with Moldovan republic in 1992. (2)
However, this state department cannot be seen as an independent state, because internationally it does not recognize any other state. Transnitrian Moldovan republic is officially recognized as an independent state only by three countries: Naghorno – Karabach, Abkhazia and South Osetia. (3)
But these three countries are not recognized officially as well, so we cannot talk about a „full“ state department or international legal status. Moldovan republic does not have control over this territory and therefore the Transnitrian Moldovan republic is in a legal vakuum. (4) But the truth is that, protecting hand over this state structure holds the Russian Federation.(5)
From the political science perspective, this state can be considered like a dictatorship with presidential system. In the country, there also specially operates own parliament and government.
The capital city of Transnitrian Moldovan republic is Tiraspol. Country has a 500 000 inhabitans approximately
Modern history

Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialists Republic (Moldavian ASSR), but this autonomy is little, because Moldavian ASSR exist within Ukraine SSR. (6)
After the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact the Moldavian ASSR, it became decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, that Transnitria will organised like an integral part of Soviet Union.(7)
This territory was captured by German and Romanian troops in 1941 and remained under the control of Romania.
The Romanian-administered territory – called the Transnistria Governorate – with an area of 44.000 km2 and a population of 2,3 million inhabitants, was divided into 13 counties: Ananiev, Balta, Berzovca, Dubasari, Golta, Jugastru, Movilau, Oceacov, Odessa, Ovidiopol, Rîbnița, Tiraspol and Tulcin. This enlarged Transnistria was home to nearly 200,000 Romanian and Moldovan-speaking residents. (8)
After the Red Army reconquered the area in 1944, Soviet authorities executed, exiled or imprisoned hundreds of the Moldavian SSR inhabitants in the following months on charges of collaboration with the "German-fascist occupiers".(9)
After the repression, followed settlement by the new residents - Russians and Ukrainians and vice versa displacement of indigenous peoples in Siberia or in other Asian union socailist republics. Transnitrian country was under a strong communist influence and remained so to this day."

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