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Ernest Hemingway

Kategorie: Angličtina

Typ práce: Maturitní otázky

Škola: Gymnázium, Frýdlant nad Ostravicí, nám. T. G. Masaryka 1260, příspěvková organizace, Frýdlant nad Ostravicí

Charakteristika: Tato maturitní otázka pojednává o životě a tvorbě Ernesta Hemingwaye. Je vhodná pro školní i státní maturitu z AJ.




"Ernest Hemingway lived in the first half of the 20th century. In 1917 the USA joined World War One. The World War One didn´t strike the USA very much. Despite this there formed The Lost Generation. It was group of writers who experienced the World War One. It was named by Gertrude Stein. The most famous writer of this group is Ernest Hemingway or John Steinbeck.
In 1920 was adopted law about Prohibition, but it has no influence to the consumption of alcohol. The 20´s were ages of jazz and great parties. This era described Francis Scott Fitzgerald in his book The Great Gatsby. It story about man who followed the American dream.
In the 1930s America was hit by the Great Depression. John Steinbeck wrote about it era in his books.
He often wrote about poor working‑class people and about their lives during the Depression. Roosevelt’s New Deal plan created many new government institutions that helped the economy.
In 1941, the US joined World War II when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. During this time, the life in the US changed dramatically. A lot of women began working outside the home because many men were in the war. Some authors used their experiences in their novels. For example William Styron described the devastating impact of war in Sophie’s Choice.

He was born in 1899 in Illinois in the USA. He had 4 sisters and a brother. His father was a doctor and his mother was a musician. His father taught him to love the nature and his mother taught him to love music and art.
At school he was very good in English. He wrote to the school newspapers. He graduated in 1917 but he didn't go to university. He went to the Kansas City where he worked as a journalist. He spent there six months.
In 1918 he went to Italy, where he worked as an ambulance driver. He wanted to be a soldier but he couldn't because of his poor sight. He was wounded there. He was the first wounded American so he became famous.
After the First World War he came back to the USA.
In 1920 he married Halley Richardson with whom he had two sons.
Then he went with his family to Paris where he worked as a foreign journalist. There he met Gertrude Stein who named the Lost Generation. It was a group of writers who experienced the First World War and their work was influenced by it. He had many lovers and he worked a lot so he divorced with his first wife. He remarried again. He married Pauline Pfeiffer with whom he had two more sons.
Then he traveled a lot. He visited Cuba, Spain and Africa for example.
During the Spanish Civil War he worked in Spain as a war correspondent.
In 1940 he went to Cuba where he remarried again with Martha Gelhorn.
During the Second World War he lived in Cuba with his third wife Marta and in 1944 he went to London like journalist. In London he met his fourth wife Mary Welsh.
In 1953 he got the Pulitzer Prize and in 1954 he got the Nobel Prize for his novel The Old man and the sea.
In 1961 he probably committed suicide because of depressions. He was drunk and he shot himself to the head. Some people think that it was an accident, but in my opinion it was suicide, because he was really experienced and it´s not probable that he would be that thoughtless.

His writing was influenced by his journalist’s beginnings. He used short, simple sentences. He is famous for his iceberg method, which shows only the most important things. The rest is hidden and readers must read “between the lines” because a big part of the story is hidden.
His characters are usually men looking for strong experiences like hunting, travelling, adventure and also for danger. These are mostly hunters, soldiers, fishermen and toreadors.
In 1926 he wrote The Sun also rises. The Czech translation is Fiesta. It´s inspired by his stay in Spain and by experiences with bullfights."





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