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Historie Spojených států amerických (USA) - maturitní otázka anglicky

Kategorie: Angličtina

Typ práce: Maturitní otázky

Škola: nezadáno/škola není v seznamu

Charakteristika: Maturitní otázka ve stručnosti seznamuje s historií Spojených států amerických. Nastiňuje vývoj od období prvních kolonií, přes vyhlášení nezávislosti, zrušení otroctví, zapojení do obou světových válek až po 90. léta 20. století. Informuje tedy o nejvýznamnějších událostech i stěžejních osobnostech.


První kolonie
Den díkuvzdání
Bojkot britského obchodu
Deklarace nezávislosti, vznik USA
Válka za nezávislost
Otroctví, Lincoln
Zapojení do první světové války
New Deal
Druhá světová válka
Studená válka
Válka ve Vietnamu
90. Léta



First was the American continent discovered around the year 1000 by Vikings. Later, 12.10.1942 landed at the cost of American continent Christopher Columbus. Since then was America a colonial land of many Western European countries. The first colony extablished by the English was called Virginia. In 1620 a group of Puritan refugees from England reached the coast of North America. They landed with their ship called Mayflower on the Massachusetts coast and founded a settlement – Plymouth. Puritans were members of a religious sect, they called themselves the Pilgrim Fathers and wanted to build up a colony based on their own religious ideals. The winter 1620 was very cold and about a half of them died. In spring 1621 they planted corn and in October they celebrated good harvest and God. This day is called Thanksgiving.Their first colonies on the north were called New England. In the 17th century were already 13 colonies under British rule. Because the British Parliament protected the interests of the British in America and rose the taxes on sugar, coffee and passed many laws which should paralyse the rising industry in colonies, Americans begun boycotting of British trade.The Boston Tea Party in 1773 started the struggle for independence of the 13 American colonies. The Americans led by George Washington finally defeated British and on 4.7.1776, was signed the Declaration of Independence which denied colonial obligations to England and it declared all men equal.The Declaration of Independence which was written by Thomas Jefferson was adopted by representatives of the 13 countries and the USA were established.In I789 became George Washington the first President of the United States. There were many wars between two ri¬vals - the British and the French during the 18th century. In the period between the War of Independence and the Civil War the colonisation of the whole American continent was completed. Till 1808 about half a million Africans were brought into America as slaves. The cause of the Civil war was that there existed two antagonistic economic and social systems in the USA: the capitalist system on the north and the slave system on the south. In 1854 the Northern capitalists founded a new Republican Party. They won the elections and Abraham Lincoln became president in 1860. Than eleven Southern states left the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. In 1863 Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation which should free all slaves in the USA.The North was far stronger in industrial resources and in population. In 1863 the Union (Northern) General U.Grant defeated Southern General R.Lee in the battle of Gettysburg and two years later, in April 1865, Grant captured the Confederacy capital Richmond and Lee surrendered. It was the end of the Civil War, the worst episode in American history. Four days after Southern capitulation president A.Lincoln was assassinated. Second half of the 19th century was the period of reconstruction and the industrial growth. In 1867 became Alaska and Hawai parts of the USA. By 1890s the United States were becoming the leading world power. In April 1917 entered the USA the first world war and Wilson´s ’Fourteen Points’ helped to finish the war in 1918. Since 1919 there was prohibited the production, sale and transport of alcoholic drinks. The Black Thursday – 24. 10. 1929 - the stock market crash in New York widespread unemployment. In 1933 US president Franklin D. Roosevelt helped the USA economy with his New Deal economic programme. The Second World War entered the USA after the Japanese attack in Pearl Harbour on 7. 12. 1941. Also in this war played the USA a leading role, especially during the invasion in Europe, into France (Normandy) in June 1944 and in Pacific in battles against the Japanese."


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