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Londýn - anglicky

Kategorie: Angličtina

Typ práce: Maturitní otázky

Škola: nezadáno/škola není v seznamu

Charakteristika: Maturitní otázka heslovitě informuje o historii Londýna, jeho ekonomice, možnostech dopravy a především pamětihodnostech a zajímavých místech.


Základní informace
Ekonomika, doprava
Pamětihodnosti, zajímavá místa
Nakupování, parky, divadla, muzea, galerie


" the capital city of England and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
 it lies on the river Thames, covers an area of 1,580 sq. km
 population: 7 million people (12 mil. in its conurbation)
 includes the City of London and 32 boroughs
 it's the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government, the Supreme Court
 contains many museums, galleries, theatres, many historical buildings, parks

 the Celts settled the place as early as 800 B. C.
 43 A. D. - Romans established Londonium
 when Romans left the island, it remained the capital of Britons
 during the reign of Norman kings (12th century) the royal court moved from Winchester (the formal capital) to London for ever
 16th century - establishment of trading companies, the Royal Exchange (1565)
 1665 - more than 75,000 people died from a plague epidemic
 1666 - the Great Fire of London destroyed 4/5 of the city; during the following decades hectic building activity rebuilt the town; Sir Christopher Wren was appointed the main architect (constructed about 50 churches, many public buildings)
 17th century - Lloyd's Insurance Company was established, Bank of England (1694), Stock Exchange (1773)
 the reign of Queen Victoria (1837 - 1901) - London grew and flourished

Industry, commerce, transport
 industry: woodworking, furniture-making, chemical (oil), food (breweries, sugar refineries), clothing, printing, diamond cutting, electrical engineering, paper-making, production of cement, car industries
 financial and commercial centre - London Stock Exchange, gold, silver, platinum trade, postal services, art trade
 the river Thames - used as a highway since prehistoric times; the Port - one of the best in the world, now it's rebuilding into "The Metropolitan Water City"; the port has moved to Tilbury; riverbuses
 airports: Heathrow, Gatwick, London City Airport
 rails, underground (the oldest in the world - since 1863), buses (Victoria Coach Station)

Sights and important places
 the City is the oldest part of London in the East (now is the home to the financial district)
 the East End (to the east of the City) - immigrants and working people
 the West End - chic chops, theatres, residential areas, parks
 the most stylish parts of London: Kensington, Belgravia, Knightsbridge, Chelsea
 the City of London - self-governing enclave since the 12th century, is headed by the Lord Mayor (he enters his office in November - "Lord Mayor's Show")
 Tower of London - William the Conqueror began to build the White Tower, than successive kings extended it; it was used as royal home, prison (Walter Raleigh, Guy Fawkes, Rudolf Hess), an executive site (Ann Boleyn, Catherine Howard, Thomas More), a royal mint, an observatory; now it's museum - arsenal of weapons, the Crown Jewels; the Yeomen Warders (Beefeaters) - uniform from Tudor times; six ravens - protect the kingdom; Ceremony of the Keys (every night when the gate is locked)
 Tower Bridge (1894) - can raise in the middle to allow ships to pass up the river"





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