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New York - anglicky

Kategorie: Angličtina

Typ práce: Maturitní otázky

Škola: nezadáno/škola není v seznamu

Charakteristika: Maturitní otázka z angličtiny dodává vedle základních údajů heslovité informace o historii, dopravě, ulicích, památkách a dalších zajímavých místech New Yorku.


Základní informace
Průmysl, obchod, doprava
Plánování města
Památky a významná místa
Nakupování, parky, divadla, muzea, galerie


"New York
New York is the largest city in the USA and an industrial port
it lies on the east coast at the mouth of the Hudson and East Rivers
population: 7, 323,000 (19 million in agglomeration)
has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island (Richmond)
it's the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government, the Supreme Court
contains many museums, galleries, theatres, many historical buildings, parks

1524 - Giovanni de Verrazano was the 1st European to enter the New York Bay
1609 - Henry Hudson entered the bay and sailed up the river (named after him)
1624 - New Amsterdam was established in the south of Manhattan by Dutch
1626 - Manhattan was bought from Indians (goods worth 24 dollars)
New Amsterdam's prosperity was based on the sale of skins and tobacco farming
1664 - New Amsterdam became an English colony after a victorious struggle between England and the Netherlands for supremacy on sea; Charles II gave this territory to his brother, the Duke of York => the town was renamed on New York
1789 - became the capital of the USA for 2 years
1797 - Albany became the capital of the State of New York
the city's grow was based only on its economical role
1825 - opening of the Erie Canal which connected New York with Great Lakes
1886 - the Statue of Liberty was erected on Liberty Island
at the turn of the 20th century the first skyscrapers began to appear
1945 - New York became a seat of United Nations, new headquarters was opened in 1953

Industry, commerce, transport
business centre (Wall Street - was started in 1792, Stock Exchange was opened in 1820)
besides New York Stock Exchange (1792) exists also American Stock Exchange
ferries had been the main method of transportation (since 1712)
3 main airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark International Airport and La Guardia Airport
train stations: Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station
busses, taxis (cabs), subway (since 1904)

Town planning
New York was a city of emigrants - they built their houses as they wanted and they formed self-sufficient communities such as Chinatown, Little Italy, the Jewish Neighbourhood ...
at the beginning of the 19th century town planners suggested grid system of rectangular streets and avenues - there were to be 12 avenues running north to south (numbering starting in the east) bisected by 155 streets (now more than 200) running east to west (numbering starting in the south)
the only exception is Broadway running diagonally from the south to the north
in the middle of the 19th century this system began to be criticised and that's why Central Park was designed
Brooklyn Bridge (1883 - the 1st bridge), the George Washington Bridge (1931), Verrazano Narrow Bridge (1964)
first skyscrapers: Flatiron Building (1903), Citibank (1907), Woolworth Building (1913)

Sights and important places
Statue of Liberty (Liberty Island -1886) - commemorates the French-American friendship; designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi; 91.5 m high (with pedestal); book: "4th July 1776"
Ellis Island - gateway to America for immigrants between 1892 and 1954, was known as Isle of tears, isle of hopes
Manhattan - the heart of NY, famous skyline
Wall Street - there was a wall for protection against Indians; commercial centre - Citibank, Bank of New York
WTC (1973 - 2001)
St. Paul's Chapel - the oldest church in NY, built in 1766
Greenwich Village - the part of bohemian artists
Madison Square - named after James Madison (3rd president of the USA)
Madison Square Garden - cultural and sport centre
Empire State Building (1931) - 381 metres high
Chrysler Building (1930) - 306 metres high; the seat of the Chrysler automobile company (Art Deco Style)
the Grand Central Terminal (1913) - Beaux Art Style
the United Nations Headquarters (1950)
Times Square - named after New York Times
Rockefeller Center - the largest private complex; the bronze statue of Prometheus; Art Deco Style
St. Patrick's Cathedral (1888) - inspirited by the gothic cathedrals in Europe

Shopping, parks, theatres, museums, galleries
shopping: 5th Avenue (Saks, Lord and Taylor, Bergdorf Goodman, Tiffany's), Broadway, Madison Avenue; Christie's and Sotheby's
Central Park (1858), New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Zoo
Radio City Music Hall (1932) - Grammy Awards
Carnegie Hall (1891) - an Italian Renaissance
New York State Theatre, Metropolitan Opera House
Museum Mile: Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum (1959), Frick Collection
Museum of Modern Art, American Museum of Natural History
Madison Square Garden - cultural and sport centre
Flushing Meadows - tennis championships"





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