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Spojené království Velké Británie a Severního Irska, jeho geografie a státní zřízení - anglicky

Kategorie: Angličtina

Typ práce: Maturitní otázky

Škola: nezadáno/škola není v seznamu

Charakteristika: Maturitní otázka poskytuje informace o Spojeném království Velké Británie a Severního Irska (UK), přičemž se zaměřuje především na jeho geografii. Seznamuje s jeho polohou, povrchem i klimatem. Stručně se věnuje jeho zemědělství a těžbě nerostných surovin. Druhá část práce se zabývá státním zřízením UK, představuje jeho státní symboly a také parlament.


Nerostné suroviny
Státní symboly
Státní zřízení


"Some parts of Britain have excellent soil for crops (especially wheat is grown), potatoes, sugar beet and hops. Northern parts are used for raising cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. We can distinguish four farming types: a) arable (growing crops and cereals), b) pastoral farming (production of animals), c) horticulture (flowers – bulbs), d) market gardening (fruit and vegetables – for example cherries and pears). England’s natural resources are coal (but all coal mines are closed nowadays), limestone, salt, chalk, tin, zinc.
The British national anthem is “God save the Queen (or God save the King)”. The flag of the UK is officially called the Union flag, but is well known as the Union Jack. The flag is made up of three crosses (England has red cross on a white shield, N.I. has red diagonals on a white field and Scotland has white diagonals on a blue field). Wales is not represented because when the flag appeared it was already united with England (Henry VIII 1536). Each country has its own patron saint and floral emblem. In England it’s St. George and the Rose. The red rose has been adopted since the time of the Wars of Roses in 15 century. In Scotland is patron St. Andrew and emblem is the thistle and it’s a symbol of defence. In Wales the national flower is the daffodil, but as symbol is considered also leek. Patron of Wales is St. David. In Northern Ireland is patron St. Patrick. He was the one, who brought Christianity and during his life he religionized the whole island. The national floral emblem is the Shamrock.
London is the capital of the UK, but each country has its own capital (Wales has Cardiff, Scotland has Edinburgh and NI has Belfast). The word county (or region in Scotland) describes an area with its own government. Councils are elected and run services such as education, social welfare and town planning.
UK is a constitutional monarchy, but the constitution is not written, it is just set of laws, traditions and customs (for example in 1215 Magna Carta libertatum, when the King’s power was limited by Parliament or Declaration of Rights). The monarch (at the moment Queen Elizabeth the Second) is the Head of State, of the Church of England, Head of judiciary and head of the armed forces. The Queen’s role is mainly symbolic, because she has a very little power. She is approving legislation, but she would never refuse to sign a bill which has been passed by Parliament. The Queen is also the Head of Commonwealth (a group of former and present-day British colonies).
Parliament is the real government of the UK. It is made up from three parts: The Monarch, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The two houses are situated in the Palace of Westminster in London. The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament, MPs. Each MP is elected by voters in one constituency. MPs are paid and the party with most MPs forms the government. The leader of this party becomes Prime Minister and appoints the Cabinet. The opposition forms its own Shadow Cabinet. Opposition and government sit facing each other in the House of Commons. The House is presided over by the Speaker. The House of Lords consist of about 1200 members, who are not elected by the people and they are not paid. The Lords can be Temporal or Spiritual. The Spiritual Lords are the Archbishops and some senior bishops of the Church of England. There are two types of Temporal Lords: The Hereditary Peers (or Peeresses) and they are members of British aristocracy. The second type is Life peers, who have received a title for their service in public life, or they are senior judges (the Law Lords)."


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